A group of physicists, having based their research theoretically, have nonetheless affirmed to the study of modern science that all for which our DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid), the building blocks of the very life in which we exist, is not so fundamental as a single layer of code, but that in which said code folds and bends itself within the core of our bodies; expressing our genes and giving us that gift of individuality, yet at the recent discovery of more than one dimension or layer.
Throughout the course of far more than just a handful of years, your none run-of-the-mill biologists have been the great minds in whom hold faithfully this very well-known truth: that all life is encoded in DNA. And it is these same minds who have been able all the same to decidedly detect and successfully add to this ecumenical science: that our DNA folds and bends its code to morph and permutated throughout our genetic structure. This discovery has furthered our knowledge and understanding of human genes in a profound way. By simply having created various simulations in their experiments and studies of genes and gene sequencing, physicists have concluded the existence of a second layer of DNA.
Truly, in the realm of honesty, we need to traverse backwards and admit that this understanding of DNA and therein the folds of its G-Nome sequencing is not altogether an utter unknown to the scientific method; nor to the minds of its studious scientists itself. Yet we can safely assume that for any either layman or a person of an interest in such realms of G-Nome sequencing and DNA, such a discovery might not have been based in the coils of your mind and your knowledge.
Invite yourself to travel back into those four adolescent years as a teenager in high school as your ambitions for learning and studying of science took you to giants such as Francis Crick and James D. Watson; your teacher showing you the foundation for why those three somewhat innocuous letters of the human body are so well known today: DNA. It was the discovery of the double helix from these two men which was officially published on 25 April, 1953. In their research their conclusions led them to the naming of the four codes of DNA: Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine and Thymine. These proteins, when placed in certain order, will either make your eyes brown, your voice high, your skin fair or your taste buds moderate; your tolerance to cold lower, your threshold of pain higher, your height not much of height at all or your neuro-processing hyper-fast. Thus, how so ever these codes, typically labeled with the letters G, A, T and C, it will make you, you. Plain and simple.
However, our pathway of coding hardly ceases at this terminal. Cells in your body are begun in a format with the exact same DNA code. With every organ possessing its own specific function, varying significantly from one to another, this identical code cannot be used. Your stomach has no profit in using the genetic code for brown eyes to produce digestive enzymes. Food cannot metabolize with brown eyes or even blue eyes, no matter how nice they look. Thus DNA folding must take place which has been a note of attention to scientists since the 1980’s. And in this folding of our DNA inside our cells the process is controlled which can even be affected by environmental and even emotional stimuli.
If we break it down to a level of how you might, for example, bake cupcakes, when needing the dough, it takes certain pressure to invoke density in the mix and verily, when the cupcakes are finished baking, they’re thick and hearty; not light, airy or lacking. The same principle is applied in our DNA. Our cells in our body hold roughly 2 meters of DNA. If you consider the mass of connections in our body—our human brain possessing more connections of neurological pathways alone than there are stars in the galaxy of the Milky Way—the skin alone holds quite a mass of bones, blood and organs tightly enough. A cell is one nanometer big. This is equivalent to 0.000000001 meter, or one billionth of a meter. So 2 meters of DNA must fit into a cell that is 10 to the negative 9th its size. For this to work the DNA must coil akin to simply wrapping Christmas lights around your arm. This function of the human DNA is called Nucleosome.
Because the DNA is so tightly wrapped it can adaptably manipulate which specific genes are therefore read by the rest of the call. If you have a strain of gene all for which sit upon the inside of the Nucleosome, they will not be expressed as proteins. However, the genes resting upon the outside of the Nucleosome will be read as proteins. For this reason a completely different cell with an entirely different purpose in our bodies will have precisely the same DNA but totally different aspects to the way they function. In years not too far past, biologists have actually accomplished in sort of “grabbing on” to the DNA code and altering the very shape of the spool. This has allowed their studies to pin-point what would be a signal of genetic coding and understand the way our DNA is so folded.
Inasmuch as this fascinating strain of already known knowledge whets anyone’s appetite of learning, the question still stands as to the role a physicist plays in the confirmed discovery of a second layer of information in our DNA.
Physicists, led by Helmut Schiessel, at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, accomplished folding DNA themselves through grappling with mechanical cues. In both baker’s yeast and fission yeast, a simulation was invoked which allowed the physicists to specifically assign genomes an actual second level or layer of DNA. The information so assigned was even given with its complete mechanical cues, as well.
All of this scrupulous research and the countless hours of study these physicists have devoted show the multiple and even over abundant ways a DNA mutation can so affect us: the alteration of letters in our DNA sequence and the multitude of combinations, likely more numerous than atoms in the universe, as well as essentially changing the very mechanical cue which arranges the way a strand is thus folded.
“The mechanics of the DNA structure can change, resulting in different packaging and levels of DNA accessibility,” the physicists explain from Leiden. “And therefore differing frequency of production of that protein.”
Albeit biologists have assessed and have affirmed this knowledge so extensively that what we learn now and discover hitherto has actually already been fairly known. Nevertheless, the point in which triggers that spark of scientific curiosity and what verily has propelled man to the sky, space and faster than sound travel is the innovation of the computer simulations having radically opened up so many possibilities for scientists—and perhaps even more physicists—as such to lead a way where the very coding of our DNA and those mechanical cues can in full practical application be altered, changed or manipulated; shaping our genetic code of something quite advanced in this chain of evolution.
Understanding life and comprehending the functions of the universe are foremost in the path of advanced medicine, mechanics etc. So although our abilities to therefore manipulate the gene sequencing and coding in our DNA is physically hypothetical, it is a far greater step to witness firsthand the simulation of possibility which will soon, surely, lead to an actual and practical possibility; to fold and control our DNA code.